World For Nature

Manipur SA

Manipur- Sangai


Common Name: Sangai

Local Name: Manipuri Brow-antlered Deer

Scientific Name: Rucervus eldii eldii


The Sangai, also known as the Manipur Brow-antlered Deer, is a critically endangered subspecies of Eld’s deer found only in Manipur, India. The Sangai is characterized by its distinctive antlers that curve inward, giving it the name “brow-antlered deer.” It has a medium build, with males weighing between 95 to 150 kg and females weighing around 80 to 90 kg. The coat is light brown, and during winter, it becomes darker. Sangai are known for their graceful and delicate movements, especially when moving through their marshy habitat.


The Sangai is primarily found in the Keibul Lamjao National Park, located on the floating phumdis (heterogeneous mass of vegetation, soil, and organic matter) in Loktak Lake, Manipur. This unique habitat makes it one of the rarest and most endangered deer species in the world.


Habitat Destruction: The shrinking of Loktak Lake and degradation of the phumdi habitat due to human encroachment, pollution, and changes in water management practices pose significant threats to the Sangai.

Poaching: Illegal hunting for meat and antlers remains a persistent threat despite conservation efforts.

Genetic Bottleneck: The small population size leads to inbreeding, resulting in reduced genetic diversity and increased susceptibility to diseases.

Climate Change: Alterations in the climate can affect the water levels and vegetation of Loktak Lake, further endangering the Sangai’s habitat.

Human-Wildlife Conflict: Encroachment into the park for agriculture and fishing activities can lead to conflicts between humans and the Sangai.

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